# bidirected in a sentence

- The latter are
*bidirected*graphs, not directed graphs ( except in the trivial case of all positive signs ). - Thus, the presence of latent variables is taken into account through the correlations they induce between the error terms, as represented by
*bidirected*arcs. - For the correspondence between
*bidirected*graphs and skew-symmetric graphs ( i . e ., their double covering graphs ) see, Section 5, or. - The " directed " edges are the same as ordinary directed edges in a directed graph; thus, a directed graph is a special kind of
*bidirected*graph. - However, if the graph author suspects that the error terms of any two variables are dependent ( e . g . the two variables have an unobserved or latent common cause ) then a
*bidirected*arc is drawn between them. - It's difficult to find
*bidirected*in a sentence. - Skew-symmetric graphs were first introduced under the name of " antisymmetrical digraphs " by, later as the double covering graphs of polar graphs by, and still later as the double covering graphs of
*bidirected*graphs by. - A closely related concept is the
*bidirected*graph of ( " polarized graph " in the terminology of, ), a graph in which each of the two ends of each edge may be either a head or a tail, independently of the other end. - This confounding is depicted in the Figures 1-3 on the right through the
*bidirected*arc between Tutoring Program and GPA . If students are assigned to dormitories at random, the proximity of the student's dorm to the tutoring program is a natural candidate for being an instrumental variable. - A
*bidirected*graph may be interpreted as a polar graph by letting the partition of edges at each vertex be determined by the partition of endpoints at that vertex into heads and tails; however, swapping the roles of heads and tails at a single vertex ( " switching " the vertex, in the terminology of ) produces a different bidirected graph but the same polar graph. - A bidirected graph may be interpreted as a polar graph by letting the partition of edges at each vertex be determined by the partition of endpoints at that vertex into heads and tails; however, swapping the roles of heads and tails at a single vertex ( " switching " the vertex, in the terminology of ) produces a different
*bidirected*graph but the same polar graph.

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