horizontal agreements meaning

  "horizontal agreements" in a sentence
  • [Law]
    Agreements between companies at the same level of trade; for example, agreements between two or more manufacturers or wholesalers, rather than between a manufacturer and a distributor (compare VERTICAL AGREEMENTS). Horizontal agreements that restrict competition may infringe the competition provisions of Article 81 of the Treaty of Rome and the Chapter I prohibition in the Competition Act 1998. Most cartels are horizontal agreements.


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  1. The R & D agreements are horizontal agreements of minor importance.
  2. Initially, Microsoft attempted to eliminate competition from Netscape by seeking an express horizontal agreement not to compete.
  3. The investigation produced " no evidence of horizontal agreement on price or output at any level of supply ."
  4. The Second Circuit said, " We agree with the district court that this was insufficient evidence of a horizontal agreement to withstand summary judgment ."
  5. These are primarily in the form of horizontal agreements ( agreements to collude between firms on the same level of the supply chain such as retailers or wholesalers ).

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